The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to obligations that belong exclusively to the other and there was concern that there was a disagreement over each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. just as Britain`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.  Under Article 28, the effective withdrawal date of the United States is the fastest possible date, given that the agreement entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016. If it had decided to withdraw from the UNFCCC, it could be informed immediately (the UNFCCC came into force in 1994 for the United States) and come into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially announced to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it has a legal right to do so.  The formal declaration of resignation could only be submitted after three years of implementation of the agreement for the United States in 2019.   The implementation of IRP2019 will enable South Africa to meet its 2030 NDC target. However, we consider the goal of South Africa`s NDC to be „extremely unsatisfactory“ based on the upper end of the NDC. In this context, South Africa should consider lowering its 2030 target and re-presenting it to the UNFCCC as part of the ambitious round of the 2020 Paris Agreement.
While African development experts praise the Paris agreement, they also acknowledge that the continent`s implementation record has not been exceptional. However, the general consensus is that Africa seems determined to implement the agreement. Initially, the African Union Commission (AUC) and UNEP have already set up the Ecosystem-Based Adaptation for Food Security Assembly (EBAFOSA) as a policy and implementation platform. This platform aims to promote and support agricultural value-added chains through an agricultural approach adopted by the EBA. In order to achieve sustainable and inclusive growth, countries are invited to incorporate these techniques into their agricultural policy and implementation. On the whole, there is agreement that the Paris Agreement is an asset to all. For Africa in particular, it offers a unique opportunity to develop and implement strategies that use new approaches and technologies to realize the dream of an ecologically sustainable and economically prosperous continent. The EU and South Africa have been strategic partners since 2007 and adopted an action plan for the partnership in the same year. In accordance with the provisions of the Paris Agreement, only UNFCCC member states have the right to become parties to the Paris Agreement.
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